The Philippines – Best Cities, Places In Mindanao Muslim Autonomous Region XIV

The Mindanao Muslim Autonomous Region XIV, an autonomous region on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. It comprises five major Muslim provinces: Basilan (except Isabela), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi. The only region that has its holding government. The de facto location of the regional government is Cotabato, although the autonomous city is not within its jurisdiction.

ARMM includes the Shariff Kabunsuan province from 2006 to July 16, 2008. When Shariff Kabunsuan ceased to exist after the Supreme Court of the Philippines announced the “Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act 201”. He created it, in Sema vs. unconstitutional COMELEC.

On October 7, 2012, President Benigno Aquino III stated that the government intends to achieve peace in the autonomous region. Call it the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region, a complex of Bangsa (country) and Moro. On July 26, 2018, Aquino’s successor, President Rodrigo Duterte, signed the Bangsamoro Organic Law (BOL). Which laid the foundation set up a new autonomous political entity in the region. The (BARMM), Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.

Cities, Places In Mindanao Muslim Autonomous Region XIV

After the approval of BOL, ARMM canceled and will be replaced by BARMM. After forming the Interim Government Bangsamoro Transitional Authority in the region. The January 21 after the referendum, the law was “approved” on January 25, 2019.


The Autonomous Region XIV in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) on the mainland of Mindanao in the southern Philippines. Created by Republic Act No. The 6734, confirmed into legislation by President Corazon Aquino on August 1, 1989. Their referendum held on November 17, 1989, in the ARMM region of ​​Maguindanao, Lanao del Sur, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi.

READ: The Philippines Best Cities, Places In SOCCSKSARGEN Region XII

The region strengthened and expanded by the approved Republic No. 9054 Act, which amended Act No. 6734 of the Republic. Designated “The Law stipulates ARMM,” amended September 2001, as a separate of ARMM, from Basilan and Marawi.


The history of the Philippines, the region and most of Mindanao are independent territories. It enables to develop own culture and identity. The district has a traditional homeland for Filipino Muslims since the fifteenth century. The Spaniards even who colonized most of the Philippines before the Muslim missionaries in 1565. They arrived in Tawi Tawi in 1380 to begin colonization of the territory. And transforming the indigenous population into Islam. In 1457, it established the Sultanate of Sulu. They established Soon after the Sultanate of Maguindanao and Buayan. While the Philippines under Spanish rule.

These Sultanates maintained their independence and carried out attacks on coastal towns in northern. They rejected Spain’s invasion of its territory to question the Spanish rule of the Philippines. During the last quarter of the nineteenth century that the Sultan of Sulu recognized Spanish sovereignty. But these areas still controlled by the Spaniards something limited. Because of sovereignty in Zamboanga and Cotabato to military radio stations and garrisons and settlements. Civilian settlements had to leave the region because they failed in the Spanish-American war.

The Philippines – Best Cities, Places In ARMM

For over 400 years, the Moors have to resist the history of Spain, the United States, and Japan. Moro’s current Muslim leaders believe the violent armed struggle against Japanese, Filipinos, Spaniards, and Americans. A portion of the 4-century “social liberation organization” of the Bangsamoro. The 400-year resistance of the Moorish Muslims to the Japanese, Americans, and Spaniards persists. It becomes their current war of independence for the Filipino countries.

READ: The Mindanao Philippines

In 1942, during the early stages of the Second World War in the Pacific War. The Japanese Imperial Army’s army invaded and invaded Mindanao. A Moro’s native Muslims launched a rebellion against the Japanese. Three years later, in 1945, the United Army and the Philippine Federation Army liberated Mindanao. With the help of local guerrillas, defeated the Japanese who occupied the territory.


In the 1970s, escalate hostilities between government forces and the Moro National Liberation Front. This led to issuing a declaration by President Ferdinand Marcos to form an autonomous region in the southern Philippines. But, rejected by the referendum. In 1979, Batas Pambansa No. 20 established an autonomous regional government in the western and central parts of Mindanao.


The Muslim Autonomous Region XIV of Mindanao set up the first time on August 1, 1989. It gives Muslim Autonomous Region XIV of Mindanao through the Republic Act 6734 (known as the Organic Law) and the Constitution. The referendum in Basilan, Cotabato, South Davao, North Lanao. In South Lanao, Maguindanao Province, Palawan Island, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudala, Sulu, Tawi – Tawi. The provinces of North Zamboanga and Zamboanga. In Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Coronado, Iligan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa. The city of Zamboanga to decide if residents want to be part of ARMM. Four provinces, South Lanao (except Marawi), Maguindanao, Sulu, and Tawi-they to include Tawi in the new autonomous region xiv.

The Philippines – Best Cities, Places In ARMM

ARMM completed in Cotabato on November 6, 1990 [19], it designated which as the temporary capital. They promulgated the Mindanao Muslim Autonomous Bill on September 22, 1995. Try to fix the regional government’s seat in the Parang in Maguindanao province, waiting complete required buildings and infrastructure. But, transferring Parang has never done. Until they take on the Republic’s Law No. 9054, 2001. The regional government ARMM ordered the re-establishment of the new permanent seat of government in the region under its jurisdiction. The city of Cotabato remains the de facto seat of the ARMM government. 

2001 ARMM Extension.

On February 7, 2001, US Congress passed a new law, Republic Act No. 9054, expand the territory and powers of ARMM. By amending the original Organic Law (RA No. 6734), voted to approve the amendment. Confirm what others Provinces and cities will join the region. RA 9054 became law on March 31, 2001, without the signature of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. A referendum in Basilan Island, Cotabato Province, South Davao, North Lanao, South Lanao. The Maguindanao Province, Palawan Island, Sarangani, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudala, Sulu, Tawi – Tawi, Zamboanga Province. Held August 14th North Zamboanga and Zamboanga del Sur, and Zamboanga Sibugay, and Cotabato. In Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Iligan, Kidapawan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, Digos, Coronal, Tacurong, and Zamboanga City. In the referendum, most of the four original provinces voted in favor of the amendment; outside these areas, only Marawi and Basilan (excluding Isabella) chose to was in ARMM.

Create and Dissolve Shariff Kabunsuan

The sixth ARMM province, Shariff Kabunsuan, excavated in Maguindanao on October 28, 2006. On July 16, 2008, the Supreme Court of the Philippines canceled set up Shariff Kabunsuan. It declared that Article 19 violated the Constitution 9054. Granted the ARMM District Council the power to create provinces and cities. The Supreme Court held that only Congress has the power to create provinces and cities. Because creating these provinces and cities includes the power to prove a legislative district. Which based on the Philippine Constitution, the exclusive right established by Congress?

Ancestral Field Agreement Memorandum

On July 18, 2008, Hermogenes Esperon, then peace adviser to the then president, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. Showed in a get together with the insurgents of the Malaysian Moro Islamic Liberation Front. The planned expansion of the city. After negotiating and approved by the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. The agreement will grant ARMM control over 712 added villages in southwestern Mindanao and broader political and economic power.

The large-scale protests greeted the movements of the Philippine. Moro connected Islamic Liberation Front government committees and chose not to join ARMM, 1989 and 2001.

The Philippines – Best Cities, Places In ARMM

On August 4, 2008, after local Cotabato officials requested the Supreme Court to prevent the Philippine government from signing. Agree with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, the court issued a temporary restraining order prohibiting the signing memorandum of agreement. The ancestral field between the Philippine government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front rebels in Malaysia (MOA-AD). Congressmen submitted petitions to the Supreme Court to prevent the Philippine government from completing MOA-AD for lack of transparency. In fact, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front has not yet cut links to al-Qaeda. The Islamic Jemaah terrorist network, aimed at establishing Islam in Southeast Asia. The country uses the Moro Islamic Liberation Front camp in southwestern Mindanao as a training camp and attack preparation point.

On October 14, 2008, the Supreme Court of the Philippines passed the ancestral field of the Tripoli Peace Agreement (MOA-AD). Which violated the law and the Constitution, by 8 votes to 7. Between the Philippines in 2001. Government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. The 89-page decision, written by Deputy Attorney General Conchita Carpio Morales, ruled. “The presidential adviser to the peace method abused discretion when it did not follow the relevant consultation scheme. EO No. 3., RA 7160 and RA 8371. The sneaky scheme of designing and developing MOA-AD violates authority and makes up capricious, oppressive, arbitrary and authoritarian behavior. It illustrates active evasion of active responsibility and refused to fulfill the oblige of collection.”

Bangsamoro State 

Because of the challenge of the former government to set up the Bangsamoro entity. Then Davao City Mayor Rodrigo Duterte announced his intention to set up a federal government form. To replace a single form of government his campaign speech the 2016 Philippine winner of the presidential election. In its plan, besides the cities of Isabella and Cotabato. The ARMM and the field of voting for ARMM in 2001 will become part of the federal state. An ally Aquilino Pimentel advocated the federal scheme Duterte said in an interview. Isabella City, Basilan, Lamitan, Sulu and Tawi – Tawi can become a federal state. While South Lanao, Marawi, Cotabato City, Maguindanao can become a single state. The federal state has a different heritage of the Muslim Mindanao mainland because of the Muslim Sulu Islands.

Bangsa Sug and Bangsa Moro

In 2018, represent every ethnic group from the Sultan in the Sulu Islands began in Zamboanga City. Announcing that they were the people of Bangsa Sug. It separates them from the Bangsa Moro people from the mainland centre of Mindanao. They cite the complete differences between culture and customary lifestyles. The main reason for their separation from Muslims in the Central Mindanao. They called on the government to set up an independent Filipino country called Bangsa Sug on the mainland of Bangsamoro. Or to include the Sulu Islands in any state on the Zamboanga Peninsula. If the next Philippines approved by the federal scheme.

Administrative Division

The Muslim Autonomous Region xiv of Mindanao comprises two constituent cities, 116 municipalities and 2,490 towns. The cities of Isabella and Cotabato are not within the administrative jurisdiction of ARMM. Although the former is part of Basilan, which considered but not part of the political Maguindanao province.

Lanao del Sur

ARMM Organizational Structures


The region headed by a regional governor. Their regional governor and the regional deputy governor elected as local executives. The Regional Decree established by the District Council and comprises members of the Assembly and elected. According to Congressional legislation, it holds regional elections one year after the general elections (national and local). Regional officials appointed for a three-year term and may extend through the Congressional Act.

The Regional Governor is the CEO of the Regional Government and assisted by a cabinet of only 10 members. Senior officials are to appoint cabinet members, this to confirmation by the regional legislative assembly. Control every regional executive committee, agencies, committees, offices, and offices.

Executive Meeting

Governor of the Muslim Autonomous Region XIV of Mindanao

The Executive Committee advises the regional governor on the government affairs of the autonomous region. It comprises the regional governor, a regional deputy governor. Three regional deputy governors (each representing a Christian, Muslim, and indigenous cultural communal). They appoint the Regional Director and the Regional Vice-Governor. Term of three years with only three-year terms highest. The term of the Representative is consistent with the term of the Regional Director who designates them.


ARMM has a one-chamber regional legislative assembly led by the president. It comprises three members from each congressional district. The number of members who canceled ARMM was 24, of which 6 were from Lanao del Sur, including Marawi City. Six were from Maguindanao, 6 were from Sulu, 3 were from Basilan, and 3 were from Tawi-Tawi.

The local legislative assembly is the parliamentary division of the ARMM government. Official members (3 members/regions) and departmental representatives appointed for a term of three years; for a greatest of three consecutive semesters. He exercises legislative power in the autonomous region, except for diplomacy. The national defense and national security, postal, monetary and monetary policies. Justice, quarantine, tariff and customs, citizenship, naturalization, immigration, and deportation. General audit, national elections, shipping, land and air transport, communications, patents, trademarks, trade names, and copyrights. The foreign trade, and legislation on matters covered by Islamic law, laws governing Muslims.

The Power and Basic Principles of ARMM.

RA 9054 states that ARMM “is still an integral part of the territory of the Republic”. The President has supervised the regional governor. According to the constitutional provisions and RA 9054. Local governments may create their own sources of income and collect taxes, fees, and charges. Islamic law applies only to Muslims; its scope of application limited by the relevant constitutional provisions (prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment).

Region XIV:Cultural Heritage

People in the Bangsamoro region, including Muslims and non-Muslims, have a culture that revolves around Kulintang music. Special music found in Muslim and non-Muslim groups in the southern Philippines. Each ethnic group of ARMM has its own unique architecture, intangible heritage and crafts. A good example of the region’s original architectural style is the Royal Sulu Building. Which used to make Daru Jambangan (Flower Palace) in Sulu Maimbung. Because of the typhoon of 1932, the palace destroyed during the American period and has never rebuilt. It used to be the largest palace in the Philippines. It has carried a faithful restoration of interest in Maimbung town out since 1933. A tiny replica of a palace was in a small town near the 2010s. But it pointed out that the copy does not mean that the campaign to rebuild the palace Maimbung has stopped. The copy the product does not say the true essence of the Sulu Palace. In 2013, the remaining members of the Sulu royal family designated Maimbung as the royal capital of Sultanate of Sulu.

ARMM Regional Building

Photo by georgeparrilla

The Philippines – Best Cities, Places In Caraga Region XIII Part 2 of 2

Export and Investment

Investment in the region fell by 25.4%. The 6.3 billion Philippine pesos in 2002 to 4.6 billion pesos in 2003. Investment in every province in the region experienced negative growth. Agusan del Sur declined the most year-on-year during 2002-2003, at 62.6%. The decrease of 8.5%, the share of Agusan del Norte’s investment increased from 64.8% to 79.5%. Base on DTI Caraga’s board of directors. Investment data is only partial in part and does not show the overall level of investment in the district. DTI Caraga’s data does not cover public expenditure data.

The period 2000-2001, exports fell by 19.08%, and exports in 2001-2002 fell by 57.52%. Agusan Norte, Surigao Norte, and Surigao Sur recorded negative growth between 2000 and 2001. Surigao Sur recorded the largest decline (81.31%). The year 2002, Agusan Norte’s exports increased by 741.04%, a sign of economic growth in the province. Exports in northern Surigao fell the most, in 2002 (63.17%).

The year 2000, the region XIII contributed 1.87% to Mindanao’s exports; this expanded to 2.68% in 2001 but fell to 0.77% in 2002.

Natural Resources

They know the district for its timber economy. Extensive water resources and abundant minerals such as iron, gold, silver, nickel, chromite, manganese and copper. Its main crops are the taste, bananas, and coconuts.

There are several beaches in the territory, rich in seafood, cool and hot springs, evergreen forests and a mild climate.

Main Products

The main agricultural products in the region include corn, palay, coconut, gold. Oil palm, banana, rubber, calamansi, crab, seaweed, shrimp, and mango. The distance between Caraga and Cebu and Manila makes products in these markets conducive to shipments. The traffic volume at other locations in Mindanao increases. Nasipit Port can serve as a secondary shipping center for Cagayan de Oro. Surigao is operating the Ro-Ro ferry service and is an important transportation hub for trucks and buses to Luzon.


Siargao, known as the “Philippines Surfing Capital”, organizes an international surfing event every year. The huge “Peace Roll” has become one of the top five jumps in the world. Including “Cloud Nine” they consider which to be one of the most important surfing waves in the world. They discovered other ruptures in cities such as Cantilan, Tandag, and Lanuza, providing exploratory surfing without crowds.


Guyam, Daku, La Janosa, Naked or Pansukian, Bucas Grande, Pig-ot, Dinagat, Cantilan and Britania have small islands. An island with white sand beaches surrounded by coral reefs for swimming and diving.

READ: The Philippines – Best Cities, Places In Caraga Region XIII Part 1 of 2

Other attractions include the carved waterways in the middle of the mangroves of Barangay Manjagao; the Barangay Dayasan floating village in Buena Vista Cavern; and the white sandy tropical beaches on Sagisi Island. Britania in San Agustín-Surigao del Sur has 25 small islands, white sandy beaches and a group of limestone hills.

Mountain Bike

Alabel City, Surigao del Sur, Kawas, Agusan del Norte and Siargao bicycle trails. Will host cross-country and downhill races involving local and international cycling.

Travel By Walking

Mount Mas-ai and Mt. Hilong-Hilong offer panoramic views of Agusan’s vast trough. Close to the mountains. Mas-ai is in Lake Mainit, the country’s fourth largest lake. With a space of ​​147 square kilometers (57 square miles). Over the years, they have known this lake tilapia, pidjanga, haw-an, kasili, banak, saguyon, gingaw, and igi’s lair. Migratory birds, pagoi and tabokali flowers are their intermittent added attractions.

The mangrove forest in Del Carmen covers a range of ​​8,000 hectares (80 square kilometers). One of the largest mangrove forests in the Philippines. Sohoton’s caves and lagoons on the island of Bucas Grande. An hour-long journey from Siargao, showing limestone formations, entering a narrow passage, and soon it became a cave.


Karst bedrock in parts the provinces of Surigao and Agusan (San Agustín, Lianga, Rosario, Tagbina, and Bislig) presents several caves. Isn’t common destinations for leisure cave explorers. Caves of Banbow and Tatol (listed 6th and 9th caves in the Philippines) are in cities of Tagbina and Bislig. Declared the third longest cave in the country by Japanese cave explorers. The most visited and most accessible caves in the territory are the Buenavista Caves and the Silop Caves in Surigao. The Libas Caves in Jabonga-Agusan del Norte. These caves have limestone formations and stalagmites, stalactites and carved pillars.

Agusan’s Swamp

It covers a range of ​​14,000 hectares (140 square kilometers), the Agusan Reservoir in Agusan del Sur. One of the largest wetlands in the country with a variety of birds. 

Events and Festivals

The festival includes the Naliyagan Festival of Agusan del Sur, Kahimunan, Balangay, Surigao del Sur’s Kaliguan of Cagwait. Lisagan and the region’s most famous Bonok-Bonok festival Maradjaw Karadjaw to commemorate San patron Nicholas De Torun Tino. In the annual international surfing competition, surfers from the world gathered in Siargao.


The entire part connected by roads from the main commercial and processing centres of Cagayan de Oro and Davao. Wuduan City is developing into a regional center with modern facilities. Many secondary seaports and airports in the territory. Has much and more telecommunications facilities and the main base port of the region in the Verano harbour in Surigao.

Social Development

Education and Skills Development

The literacy rate in the region XIII in 1990 was 93%, higher than the national average of 92.57%. In 1997, public and 49 private primary schools. The110 public, 71 private secondary schools, 26 secondary school affiliated schools and 7 vocational schools supported education in the region.

There are 49 higher education institutions in region XIII, including 45 private higher education institutions (HEIs). Four universities and state universities (SUCs). In higher education institutions, St. Nicholas College (now St. Paul University-Surigao and the first university established throughout the region). Identified as the Center for Teacher Education Development and the Regional Center for Gender and Education. The development, as the headquarters of the CARAGA Women’s Resources Center.

Caraga State University (CSU). Known as Northern Mindanao State Institute of Science and Technology of Mindanao (NORMISIST). One of 112 institutions investing in the Philippines. The Higher Education Commission (CHED) identified it as the Center for Information Technology Development (COD), Biological COD and Math COD. The research environment of the Caraga Center and in the Eco-governance (CREME) management. Caraga Environmental Research Center and Management (CCESM). The focus of capacity building and coordination of environmental protection. In the field. The university, through the geographic information of the Caraga Center (CCGeo). Is (the systematic evaluation of the impact of the risk of flooding in Mindanao.

The geographic information science), implementing the geography SAFER Mindanao agency, the research plan LiDAR data will flood. The risk zone maps to construe the resistant island of Mindanao. CSU produces high-level councils, forestry, geotechnical engineering, mining engineering, and agricultural engineering has passed. Leading him to the recent State University Level 4 accredited by the Higher Education Commission for years of excellence. In research and innovation systems for excellence in teaching and research.

Father Saturnino Urios University founded by the dearest Spanish missionary Caraga (father). The Saturnino Urios S.J. Higher Education Commission (CHED). Believes that the University of Saturnino Urios is one of the best schools in the region. It has achieved the best results in the examinations of the National Committee for Nursing, Engineering and Accounting. They performed well in the Teacher Licensing Examination (LET) and the Philippine Bar Association (BAR). On July 12, 2006, Urios School proclaimed its promotion to the university and now renamed Padre. The University of Saturnino Urios (FSUU), the first local university in Caraga.

In the 1996-1997 school year, the participation rate of public primary schools 93.65%. The enrolment rate in public secondary schools is low at 56%. Teachers and students ratio at both levels is within the teacher’s standard for every 40 students. The survival rate of this group considered being low at the primary and intermediate levels, which 66.23% and 68.93%. The 1996-97 school year, high school dropout rates high, in Butuan (9.5%) and Surigao del Sur (7.8%). This may be one reason most people only end in primary school.

Health and Nutrition

Besides the maternal mortality rate, every important health indicators from 1992 to 1997 showed a downward trend. The crude birth rate fell from an average of 21.02 from 1992 to 1996 to 18.71 in 1997. The crude death rate fell from the average death rate in 1992-1996 to 3.0 in 1997. Infant mortality rate rose from an average of 1.33 in 1992-1996 to 1.56 in 1997.

Total major causes of the disease from 1992 to 1997 infectious diseases. Except for pneumonia (836.30 to 1,200.23), diarrhea (1,059.40 to 1,133.11). The Influenza (655.36 to 926.74) malaria (216.80), and the rate per million population. The declined to 366.5 of the main causes of death. Lifestyle-related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer rank first, replacing infectious diseases.

The district faces problems with endemic diseases such as schistosomiasis and malaria. Although its prevalence has declined over the past three years. Caraga region XIII is still ranked second in schistosomiasis cases and sixth in malaria cases in the country.

The malnutrition rate 49.25%, of which 34.05% classified as low body weight. 11.66% underweight, 1.43% low weight, and 3.60% overweight.

According to the 1995 census, life expectancy in the region XIII 65.73 for men and 70.98 for women.

In 1997, 62 hospitals in region XIII, 35 of which government hospitals and 27 private hospitals. Among the 27 private hospitals, 20 are primary schools, 4 are secondary schools, and 3 are tertiary. Of the 35 government hospitals, 18 are primary schools, 14 are secondary schools, and 3 are tertiary. The 73 major health centers, 489 Barangay health stations. 76 doctors, 147 nurses, 35 medical technicians, 45 dental assistants, 52 dentists, 608 midwives, and 137 health inspectors. Each of this returned to the local government authorities in conformity with local government regulations of 1991.

Social Welfare Services

In 1996, there were 1,619 welfare facilities in Caraga, of which 1,238 were daycare centres, 8 were Tertiary Centres. The 3 were Productivity Skills Capability Building for Disadvantaged Women (PSCBDW). Children’s Learning and Resources Centre, Women’s Centre, Girls’ Home. Youth Regional Rehabilitation Centre, Lingap Centre, Balay Silongan, foster families of abused children and women, and mental illness among families.

Among public-based services, only PSCBDW managed by DSWD, while the rest managed by LGU.


The region XIII at a unique housing image in 1990. Other areas complain about housing shortages, still, many houses were vacant, in Agusan del Norte and Surigao del Norte. But, the statistics do not show the poor quality of the units to replace and the current housing stock. At present, Butuan City and Surigao City and other cities have not spared from the housing problem. The squatters purchased by urbanization.


Roads and Bridges

The Caraga region has the first and only cable-stayed bridge on the entire island of Mindanao. In the Surigao-Siargao Bridge in the northern province of Surigao, connecting the mainland with the Siargao Island.

The region connected to the main centre of its neighbourhood via the Maharlika Highway. Which extends from Davao City, Cagayan de Oro, and Surigao. It interconnects these provinces with concrete roads. Except for parts of Surigao del Sur still being completed in areas. The total length of roads in the territory is 7,515,596 km. Their road density in 1995 was 0.3988. The region has 1,325,558 km of national and urban roads and 1,289,774 km of provinces. The total length of municipal roads in the district is 696.46 km.

There are bridges in the region with a total length of 23,775.49 linear meters. Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur have the longest bridge lengths: 9,288,520 linear meters and 7,853.4 linear meters.

Seaports and Airports

As a land entry into the Visayas and Luzon, you can access the territory. Through the base port of the summer port and the Lipata Ferry Terminal in Surigao. Which connects the southern province of Wright. Other terminal harbors are in Surigao del Norte, Siargao, Dapa, San José in the Dinagat Islands. Bislig in Surigao del Sur, Tandag and Nasipit Port in Agusan del Norte. The fast ferry service is available daily for the Surigao-Cebu daily.Private ports can found in different cities and downtowns in the region. Only three of the 42 ports serve.

The district offers commercial flights to and from Manila and Cebu, passing through Butuan. Surigao and Siargao in Surigao del Norte and Tandag Airport in Surigao del Sur. Bislig Airport served before suspending commercial flights. Advice on Agusan del Sur and Dinagat airports is being studied if they are available for commercial operations. There are six other private airports in the district, including PHILNICO Airport in Nonoc island in Surigao. The port and airport are compatible with the road network connecting the provinces inside and outside region XIII.

READ: The Philippines – Best Cities, Places In Caraga Region XIII Part 1 of 2

Photo by Matt Herradura Photography

The Philippines – Best Cities, Places In Caraga Region XIII Part 1 of 2

Caraga, known as the Karaga Region or the Caraga region XIII, designated as District XIII. An administrative region of the Philippines that occupies the northeastern part of Mindanao. The Caraga region established on February 23, 1995, through Republic Act No. 7901. The region includes 5 provinces: Surigao del Norte, Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Agusan del Sur, and Dinagat; six cities: Bislig, Bayugan, Butuan, Surigao, Cabadbaran, and Tandag; 67 cities, and 1,311 towns. Butuan is a regional administrative center.

It is said that Caraga originated from Kalaga native words, meaning “the spirit of the soul.” The entire province of Caraga throughout 1622 called a vibrant region an “energetic region”. Another fictional source of the name comes from local legends, comes from the word Cagang. Which forms the beach of Caraga, known as the katang of the local population legend name of the city. Because the first Spanish missionaries who arrived in the early 17th century found many small crabs on the beach.


During the pre-colonial period, the Rajahnate of Butuan ruled the current Agusan del Norte and Butuan City. It has a great influence in Caraga, the northern part of Mindanao and the western part of Bohol. According to records, Butuan conflicts with Ternate Sultanate in Indonesia’s current Moluccas. Ternateans will attack and plunder Butuan and its wealth, but Butuan always has the edge. As everyone knows, Butuan’s Rajahnate has a friendly relationship with Cebu’s Rajahnate, which he considers being an ally. Butuan’s Rajahnate became a powerful Hindu country known for its goldsmiths and shipbuilding. The Butuan people used a huge ship called balangay, which contained countless people. The Philippine National Museum and other international museums unearthed and preserved the remains of these gold crafts and giant ships. Butuan has a cordial relationship with the Champa Kingdom, now the center of Vietnam.

The Best Cities, Places In Caraga Region XIII

The Butuan crossed the Sulu Sea and the South China Sea to trade in Champa. Although Butuan’s Rajahnate is free, the internal Lumads of Caraga are free and have a very advanced democratic society. Their society is known for its understanding of nature, medicine, mythology, and war. Chinese businessmen arrived in Butuan, China – China trade became the focus of the Champa-Butuan relationship. The two countries competed to win a better trade with Chinese businessmen. For the large-scale attack by Ternate, Butuan began to weaken. Cebu couldn’t help at the time because he attacked by Ternate. Kedatuan of Bohol Dapitan, “Venice of the Visayas”, destroyed by the attack of Ternate.

READ: The Philippines – Best Cities, Places In Caraga Region XIII Part 2 of 2

Calagan, known by the Spaniards as “Karagan”, occupies a region. It comprises the two provinces of Surigao, northeast of Davao and East Misamis. The two provinces of Agusan organized under the administrative jurisdiction of Surigao. It became the independent province of Agusan in 1940 in 1960. Surigao divided into South and North, and June 1967, Agusan did the same. Although Butuan was only a city in Agusan, the logging boom of the 1950s brought commercial interest in the field. On August 2, 1950, according to Republic Law 523, the “Butuan City Charter” approved. 

On February 23, 1995, the Caraga region established by Republican Law No. 7901 during administer President Fidel Ramos. The provinces of North Agusan, South Agusan and North Surigao (from the ancient part of northern Mindanao). South Surigao (from the ancient part of southern Mindanao) annexed as part of the created space.

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Corresponding to reports, in the first few years of the Caraga region, its residents came from the Asian continent. It followed by Malays, Arabs, Chinese, Japanese, Spanish and Americans. Immigrants from Visayas and Luzon settled in the city. Most residents say Cebuano, living in rural areas.

Caraga Region XIII: Geography

The Caraga region XIII, in the northeastern part of Mindanao, stationed between 8 00’ and 10 30’ north latitude. It has a longitude of 125 15’ to 126 30’E. It limits the Bohol Sea in the north; the Davao del Norte province in the south, the Davao Oriental in the Compostela Valley and XI districts; the Bukidnon and Misamis Oriental of X in the west; and the Pacific Ocean in the Philippines to the east.

The total space of ​​the territory 18,846.97 square kilometers. (7,276.86 square miles), accounting for 6.3% of the country’s total capacity. 18.5% of Mindanao 47.6% of the total land of ​​the region belongs to the province of Agusan del Sur. Among the total land space, the forest land section accounts for 71.22%. The total land and total land space account for 28.78%. The mainland used includes forest land, accounting for 31.36% and 23.98% of agriculture and open space.

Caraga Region XIII: Environment And Wildlife

The region has one of the last ecological boundaries of the Philippines. It is home to 12 key biodiversity areas identified by the Haribon Foundation. The Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of the Philippines. Key areas of biodiversity include Mt. Redondo and Mt. Kambinliw in the Dinagat Islands. Dinagat, the mouse cloud-tailed family and endangered species. After decades of disappearance, rediscovered, Dina Ghat’s Dinagat Gymnure endangered species. They announced to plan EDGE species of animal learning. London as a world of different species of 100 major evolutionary and endangered species and rare subspecies.

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The Philippine tarsier, a large, darker in the Philippine ordinary larger and dark. The landscape of Siargao Island in Surigao del Norte and the protected sea view, the country’s surfing capital. Consuelo, Carrascal Bay in Surigao del Sur, Mt. Hilong-Hilong, and General Islands in Surigao del Sur. This shared by North Agusan, South Agusan, North Surigao, and Surigao del Sur. It considers one of the most extensive houses of the Philippine Eagles. The Magsaysay in Agusan del Norte, Mount Kaluayan -Mt. Kinabalian, shared by Agusan del Sur and Mindanao del Norte’s Bukidnon province. Surigao del Sur’s Cagwait, Mt. Diwata range, shared by Agusan del Sur and Surigao del Sur. The focal point of the western Mindanao ecological border. Surigao del Sur’s Hinatuan Bay Known for its fascinating Hintauan River. The Bislig rainforest between Agusan del Sur and Surigao del Sur. The Agusan Marsh Wildlife Sanctuary in Agusan del Sur, part of the UNESCO temporary list.

Caraga Region XIII: Terrain

The zone characterized by mountains, flat and undulating. Their mountains divide the provinces of Agusan and Surigao. While the secondary mountains separate most of the lowlands on the Pacific coast. The most productive agricultural section in the region in the Agusan River Basin. Their famous Agusan Marsh in the middle of Agusan del Sur. Among the lakes in the territory, Lake Mainit is the widest lake. It spans eight cities: Alegría, Mainit, Tubod, and Sison in northern Surigao. And Santiago, Jabonga, Tubay, and Kitcharao in Agusan del Norte.

Caraga Region XIII: The Weather

The Caraga region is a category II climate with no obvious rainy and rainy seasons. Heavy rains often occur in the region between November and February.

Caraga Region XIII: Administrative Division

Includes Caraga 5 provinces, 1 urbanized city, 5 constituent cities, 70 municipalities, and 1,310 towns.

Caraga Region XIII: Demographics

According to the 2015 census, the total population of the region is 2,933,772. The annual growth rate during this period was higher than 20%. Among the five provinces, Agusan del Sur has the greatest population of 700,653. The Dinagat Islands has the lowest population of 127,152.

The total urban population of Butuan and Surigao is 337,063 and 154,137. From 2010 to 2015, the annual growth rate of Butuan City was 1.62%.

Caraga Region XIII: Languages

33.79% of the families in the territory say Cebuano. 33.21% of households use Surigaonon, followed by Butuanon 15%; Kamayo is 7.06% and Manobo is 4.73%. The rest said Boholanon, 5.87%; Hiligaynon, 2.87%; and 7.20% of other dialects.

Caraga Region XIII: Religion

The main religion in the region is Roman Catholicism, which accounts for 74% of the total population of Caraga family. Other major religious minorities include Protestants, who make up 20% of the total population of the family. Aglipayan, which accounts for 6% of the total family size.

Caraga Region XIII: Cultural Group

Majority of the inhabitants of the region are the Visayas heritage. The region is home to several national groups. In 1995, there were 675,722 people, accounting for 34.7% of the population of the region. The largest is Manobos, which accounts for 294,284 or 43.55% of the total minority population. Other cultural groups with a large population in the region are Kamayo, Banwaon, Higa-Onon, Kalagan, Umayamnon, and Mamanwa.

Most members of these cultural groups live in the province of Agusan del Sur.

Caraga Region XIII: Poverty Index

The poor people in the region decreased by 1.7%, from 44.7% in 1997 to 42.9% in 2000. Another positive development is the increase in regional annual household income based on the 1997 Household Income and Expenditure Survey. Compared with 2000, R $ increased by 13.65%. In 1997 it was $71,7126.00 and in 2000 it was $81,519.00. Regional annual household expenditures increased by 16.65%, from $61,815.00 in 1997 to $72,108.00 in 2000. The average annual savings reduced by 5% from ₱9,911.00 to 941 9411.00. Data on occur poverty in 2003 have not yet published.

From the perspective of Mindanao and the entire Mindanao, Caraga region one of the poorest regions in the country. From 1997 to 2000, the region the fourth highest incidence of household poverty in every part of the country. While in the Mindanao region, Caraga had the third highest incidence of poverty (in terms of incidence of the family).

Caraga Region XIII: Regional Economy

From 2001 to 2003, the Caraga region maintained its consistent performance in other parts of Mindanao. Caraga’s growth rate was 0.9%, while the growth rate in the 12th district was 9.5%. The growth rate of the Muslim Autonomous Region (ARMM) in Mindanao was 2.6%. The growth rate of Caraga in 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 the same (0.9%). This far less than population growth. But, this performance is better than the economic performance of the region during 2000-2001. The region’s economy has declined by 1.4%.

Contribute the region to Mindanao’s national products was 7.58% in 2003. Caraga has the second lowest capital income in Mindanao and across the country. In 2003, the region accounted for 1.35% of the country’s gross national product.

Caraga Region XIII: Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP)

The region performed well in regional production. It contributes 8.01% to the GRDP in Mindanao in 1998, 8.25% in 1999 and 8.29% in 2000. The region contributed 1.44% to the Philippine economy in 1998, 1.48% in 1999 and 1.50% in 2000. In terms of growth rates, the region sped up from 1998 to 2000 and surpassed other parts of Mindanao. Except for the southern Mindanao region, which increased by 6.06% between 1999 and 2000. The Karaga region grew by 5.42% over the same period.

GRDP in 2000 was 1,433.6 billion pesos, compared with 135,59 billion pesos in 1999. The region’s economy slowed from 6.03% in 1999 to 5.42% in 2000. The slowdown in agriculture, fisheries, and forestry (AFF) sectors and services. It’s best performance of the industrial district, from 5.69% in 1999 to 6.69% in 2000. It eased the impact of a slowdown in the region.

With a 1.4% reduction in GRDP in 2000-2001, GRDP resumed in 2001-2002. With a growth rate of 0.9%. The positive trend continued in 2002-2003, with GRDP in the region increasing by 0.9%, the same as the earlier year.

The Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry Zone (AFF) the main economic district in Caraga. With growth trends of 3.8% and 6.8% in 2001 and 2003,. Although the growth trend of the agricultural and fisheries sub-sectors is declining. The much growth rate of the forestry sub-segment far offsets this downward trend. The forestry subsector increased by 36.3% in 2003, the highest growth rate for any sub-segment in the region. Important to remember the Caraga region has the highest GVA in the forest sub-sectors in every region of the Philippines.

The service industry is one highlight of the region’s economy. After experiencing a slowdown in growth in 2002 and a growth rate of 6.1% in the earlier year. The industry recovered in 2003 with a growth rate of 5.6%. In addition, the commercial sub-segment still a major sub-region. With growth rates of 5.6%, 6.6% and 6.3% from 2001 to 2003. Sub-sectors achieved positive growth in both 2001 and 2003. Transportation, communications and storage sub-zone has the highest growth rate in a service industry sub-district, at 8.4%.

The industrial division was the worst performing division in the regional economy and continued to decline from 2001 to 2003. Although the decline in the zone slowed in 2002. (a -6.7% in 2002, -13.3% in 2001), it was -12.1% in 2003. Construction sub-division fell by 16.6%, 11.3% and 33.5% in 2001 and 2002. The mining sub-part recorded a negative growth rate, but the downward trend of the sub-region slowed. The manufacturing industry made up reduce the two sub-sectors. Which increased by 8.9% in 2003, making it the largest contributor to the zone. Even though the mine and quarry segment performed low, Caraga was the second largest metal mining company. In 2001, metal mine production reached 1.25 billion Philippine pesos (Philippines Yearbook, 2003).

READ: The Philippines – Best Cities, Places In Caraga Region XIII Part 2 of 2

Photo by Matt Herradura Photography

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